2023年12月28日 星期四

Nazis in Canada? A Secret List With Answers May Soon Be Released. 加拿大有納粹?機密名單可望近期公諸於世

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2023/12/29 第465期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Nazis in Canada? A Secret List With Answers May Soon Be Released. 加拿大有納粹?機密名單可望近期公諸於世
Searching for Humanity in the Middle East 在中東地區尋找人性
Nazis in Canada? A Secret List With Answers May Soon Be Released. 加拿大有納粹?機密名單可望近期公諸於世
文/Ian Austen


For 37 years, Canada has kept close guard on an explosive roster of names.


The classified report lists 883 possible Nazi war criminals who found harbor in the country after World War II, and many believe it offers insights into exactly what the government knew about how they got there, the extent to which they were investigated and why most escaped prosecution.


Canada's strong privacy laws and government secrecy have keep the report confidential, but a recent political blunder may crack it open.


Last September, Canadian lawmakers used the occasion of a visit by Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy to honor Yaroslav Hunka, a Ukrainian Canadian man who volunteered for the Nazi Waffen-SS, a combat group that also oversaw concentration camps during the Holocaust.


Now, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's government is discussing whether the time has come to unseal the report. The deliberations began before the celebration of Hunka, said Anthony Housefather, a member of Trudeau's Liberal Party caucus who has been the primary political proponent of declassification. But the episode has increased pressure on the government to finally act.


In brief remarks to reporters after Hunka was feted in Parliament, Trudeau said "top public servants are looking very carefully into the releasing the secret list, including digging into the archives."


He added: "We're going to make recommendations."


Precisely why the report, the second part of a 1986 inquiry into war criminals in Canada, was classified — even as the first part was released that year — has never been made clear. But some Ukrainian Canadians, whose communities included some former Nazis, bitterly opposed the inquiry, viewing it as a witch hunt and a smear.


The United States has steadily declassified millions of pages of documents related to Nazi war crimes and their perpetrators under a special 1998 disclosure law.


In Canada, Jewish groups and scholars have been seeking the release of the report for decades.


Of four former Nazis charged by Canada with war crimes and crimes against humanity since 1986, when they became crimes under Canadian law, none were convicted. Prosecutions and deportations failed largely because of problems with evidence.


Searching for Humanity in the Middle East 在中東地區尋找人性
文/David Brooks


We're living through an era of collapsing paradigms. The conceptual frames that many people use to organize their understanding of the world are crashing and burning upon contact with Middle Eastern reality.


The first paradigm that failed last month was critical race theory or woke-ism. In any situation, there are evil people who are colonizer/oppressors and good people who are colonized/oppressed. It's not necessary to know about the particular facts about any global conflict, because of intersectionality: All struggles are part of the same struggle between the oppressors and the oppressed.


American universities exist to give students the conceptual tools to understand the world. It appears that at many universities, students are instead being fed simplistic ideological categories that blind them to reality.


The second paradigm that fell apart this month was what you might call "pogromism." This is the belief, common in Jewish communities around the world, that you can draw a straight line from the many antisemitic massacres in ancient history, through the pogroms of the 19th century, through the Holocaust and up to the Hamas massacres of today.


The third conceptual paradigm under threat is the one I have generally used to organize how I see the Middle East conflict: the two-state paradigm. This paradigm is based on the notion that this conflict will end when there are two states with two peoples living side by side. People like me see events in the Middle East as tactical moves each side is taking to secure the best eventual outcome for themselves.


The worldview that has been buttressed by last month's events is unfortunately the one I find loathsome. You can call it authoritarian nihilism, which binds Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin and other strongmen: that we live in a dog-eat-dog world; life is a competition to grab what you can; power is what matters; morality, decency, gentleness, and international norms are luxuries we cannot afford because our enemies are out to destroy us; and we need to be led by ruthless amoralists to take on the ruthless amoralists who seek to take us down.


Some events alter the models we use to perceive reality, and the events of Oct. 7 fit that category. It feels as if we're teetering between universalist worldviews that recognize our common humanity and tribal worldviews in which others are just animals to be annihilated. What Israel does next will influence what worldview prevails in the 21st century.


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