2022年7月14日 星期四

Unequal Toll From Climate Change’s Effects 窮國製造的暖化少 卻深受其害

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2022/07/15 第391期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Unequal Toll From Climate Change's Effects 窮國製造的暖化少 卻深受其害
'MJ': Dancing the Pain, and Dancing the Pain Away 麥可傑克森音樂劇舞出/離真我
Unequal Toll From Climate Change's Effects 窮國製造的暖化少 卻深受其害
文/German Lopez

窮國製造的暖化少 卻深受其害

India has contributed little to climate change: Home to 18% of the world's population, it has emitted just 3% of planet-warming greenhouse gases.


But India is suffering from climate change. Over the past three months, a heat wave has devastated north India and neighboring Pakistan. Temperatures surpassed 43.33 degrees Celsius.


It is so hot that overheated birds fell out of the sky in Gurgaon, India, and a historic bridge in northern Pakistan collapsed after melting snow and ice at a glacial lake released a torrent of water.


Scientists say global warming almost certainly played a role in the heat wave.


And rising temperatures stand to make unusually hotter weather more common not just in India and Pakistan but around the world, including in the U.S.


Indians have responded by staying indoors as much as possible, particularly during the afternoon hours. The government has encouraged this, pushing schools to close early and businesses to shift work schedules.


The measures have kept down deaths — with fewer than 100 recorded so far, an improvement from heat waves years ago that killed thousands.


But these measures have costs. School time is cut short, so students learn less. People do not travel to their jobs, so work is less productive. The heat kept some farmers inside and stunted harvests, so crop yields fell and global food prices increased. Social life is disrupted.


The situation could be likened to the mixed effects of COVID lockdowns: Measures for adapting to climate change can help prevent the worst health outcomes, but they come with real costs.


"We're saving lives, but then livelihoods are lost," said Roxy Koll, a climate scientist in India.


The geography of poor countries — many are close to the equator — is not the only reason climate change is such a burden for them. Poverty is another factor, leaving them with fewer resources to adapt.


There is a paradox to the climate crisis. Because India never fully industrialized, it has not released as many greenhouse gases as the U.S., European nations and other rich countries. But because it has not industrialized, it also has fewer resources to adapt than the richer, polluting nations.


There is a cycle here: To adapt, countries have to adopt modern technologies. But since these technologies often require planet-warming oil and coal, their use aggravates climate change and, consequently, extreme weather.


'MJ': Dancing the Pain, and Dancing the Pain Away 麥可傑克森音樂劇舞出/離真我
文/Gia Kourlas


Irritatingly, yet predictably, "MJ: The Musical,"directed by ballet choreographer Christopher Wheeldon, has been nominated for 10 Tony Awards. It will run for ages. Michael Jackson — for all his flaws — is still Michael Jackson.


But the production does have something to show about Jackson's dancing body in all of its articulate anxiety. It made me think: What happened to that body when the boy became a man? How did his dancing change? Was something of his internal landscape exposed in his dancing for all to see? Did we ever really see it?


When he was alive and building his pop canon of music and dance, it wasn't always so easy to grasp how, beyond the nervous twitches of the choreography, his spirit was reflected in his dancing.


He was always hiding. His costumes were armor, masking his body, his interior life and even, for all of his extraordinary prowess, his physicality. In a sense, he made it possible for his impersonators to exist by crafting and perpetuating a Michael Jackson that anyone could borrow and put on. Like a rhinestone glove. Or a moonwalk.


The Broadway musical tries its best to focus on Jackson, the perfectionist artist, MJ, as the adult Jackson is listed in the Playbill. For Little Michael, tormented by his father, dance is an escape; for the older MJ, it's a way for his body to scream in ways he couldn't with words.


The older MJ, in the show, fights for rigid precision — movement phrases are knotty, spiky, full of angles, while Little Michael is smooth and enviably relaxed.


That unselfconscious fluidity throws into relief the rigidity and the constraint of MJ, as played by Myles Frost. Frost's dancing accuracy is extraordinary; it reveals a body turning in on itself and hardening — lonely, brittle, concave. The tipped hat and rounded shoulders weren't just about Jackson imitating one of his idols, Bob Fosse. Weren't they also a way to hide (and guard) himself from the world?


It's impossible to know who Jackson really was. "MJ" delivers yet another impersonation of the man we saw onstage and in videos. Often a dancing body reveals a certain truth about a person, but in Jackson's case, dancing might have been one more thing to hide behind, like another costume; it was a place he could control his body. He could be himself or the person he wanted to be: strong, powerful, sexy. Maybe the dancing body was the man, or his fantasy of himself.


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